Doxa. Cuadernos de Filosofía del Derecho

Equilibrio reflexivo y justificación: ¿intuicionismo o coherentismo? (en el 50º aniversario de la publicación de A Theory of Justice)

Emilio José Rojas Molina

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/DOXA2021.44.16

Resumen

Este trabajo examina la concepción de la justificación en la que se inscribe el método al que Rawls apela para justificar sus principios de justicia, una de las cuestiones metodológicas que más reparos ha generado. En este sentido, se propone explicar por qué el equilibrio reflexivo supone una explicación ampliamente coherentista de la justificación, así como de qué modo la visión que ofrece de esta trata de evitar cualquier elemento de naturaleza fundacionalista. Puesto que, en cuanto teoría de la justificación, el fundacionalismo es el enfoque que más abiertamente parece oponerse al coherentismo, pero algunas de las críticas que se han formulado del equilibrio reflexivo han tratado de presentarlo como una forma encubierta de intuicionismo –la versión más importante de fundacionalismo moral–, el trabajo intenta poner de manifiesto algunas de las diferencias más relevantes que cabe trazar entre esos dos modos de concebir la justificación. Tomando esto como base, pretende evidenciar por qué los intentos de presentar la justicia como equidad como participando de esa clase de fundacionalismo son poco razonables, pero, sobre todo, ofrecer algunas respuestas a propósito de ese tipo de reproches, subrayando las cuestiones en las que debe ponerse el foco a la hora de evaluarlos.

Palabras clave

Rawls; Método de justificación; Equilibrio reflexivo; Coherentismo; Fundacionalismo; Intuicinismo

Texto completo:

PDF (233,82 kB) Estadísticas

Referencias

Aristóteles: Analíticos Segundos, en Id., Tratados de Lógica (Órganon) II, trad. cast. de Miguel Candel Sanmartín, Madrid, Editorial Gredos, 1988, pp. 301-440.

Baier, K., 1958: The Moral Point of View: A Rational Basis of Ethics, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

Brandt, R. B., 1979: A Theory of the Good and the Right, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Brandt, R. B., 1990: «The Science of Man and Wide Reflective Equilibrium», Ethics, Vol. 100, No. 2 (January), pp. 259-278.

https://doi.org/10.1086/293176

Brandt, R. B., 1992: Morality, Utilitarianism, and Rights, New York, Cambridge University Press.

Brink, D. O., 1987: «Rawlsian Constructivism in Moral Theory», Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Mar.), pp. 71-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/00455091.1987.10715901

Brink, D. O., 1989: Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511624612

Brink, D. O., 2014: «Principles and Intuitions in Ethics: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives», Ethics, Vol. 124, No. 4 (July), pp. 665-694. https://doi.org/10.1086/675878

Corlett, J. A. (ed.), 1991: Equality and Liberty. Analyzing Rawls and Nozick, London, Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-21763-2

Dancy, J., 1985: Introducción a la Epistemología Contemporánea, trad. cast. de J. L. Prades Celma, 2.ª ed., Madrid, Tecnos, 2007.

Dancy, J., 2004: Ethics Without Principles, New York, Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/0199270023.001.0001

Dancy, J., 2014: «Intuition and Emotion», Ethics, Vol. 124, No. 4 (July), pp. 787-812. https://doi.org/10.1086/675879

Daniels, N., 1979a: «Wide Reflective Equilibrium and Theory Acceptance in Ethics», The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 76, No. 5 (May), pp. 256-282. https://doi.org/10.2307/2025881

Daniels, N., 1979b: «Moral Theory and The Plasticity of Persons», The Monist, Vol. 62, No. 3, (1 Jul), pp. 265-286. https://doi.org/10.5840/monist197962318

Daniels, N., 1980a: «Reflective Equilibrium and Archimedean Points», citado por Corlett (ed.), 1991, pp. 90-109. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-21763-2_7

Daniels, N., 1980b: «On Some Methods of Ethics and Linguistic», Philosophical Studies, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Jan.), pp. 21-36. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00353498

Daniels, N., 1983: «Can Cognitive Psychotherapy Reconcile Reason and Desire?», Ethics, Vol. 93, No. 4 (Jul.), pp. 772-785. https://doi.org/10.1086/292493

Daniels, N., 1996: Justice and Justification. Reflective Equilibrium in Theory and Practice, New York, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511624988

Daniels, N., 2020: «Reflective Equilibrium», The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL= https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2020/entries/reflective-equilibrium/

DePaul, M. R., 1986: «Reflective Equilibrium and Foundationalism», American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1 (January), pp. 59-69.

DePaul, M. R., 1988: «The Problem of the Criterion and Coherence Methods in Ethics», Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 18, No. 1 (March), pp. 67-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/00455091.1988.10717166

Dworkin, R., 2006: Justice in Robes, Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Dworkin, R., 2011: Justice for Hedgehogs, Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Ebertz, R., 1993: «Is Reflective Equilibrium a Coherentist Model?», Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 23, No. 2 (June), pp. 193-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/00455091.1993.10717317

Feinberg, J., 1972: «Justice, Fairness and Rationality», citado por C. Kukathas (ed.), John Rawls: Critical Assessments of Leading Political Philosophers. Volume II. Principles of Justice I, London, Routledge, 2003, pp. 201-224.

Feinberg, J., 1975: «Rawls and Intuitionism», en N. Daniels (ed.), Reading Rawls: Critical Studies on Rawls' A Theory of Justice, Oxford, Blackwell, pp. 108-124.

Gaus, G. F., 1996: Justificatory Liberalism. An Essay on Epistemology and Political Theory, New York, Oxford University Press.

Habermas, J., 1991: Aclaraciones a la ética del discurso, trad. cast. de José Mardomingo, Madrid, Editorial Trotta, 2000.

Habermas, J., 1999: Verdad y Justificación. Ensayos Filosóficos, trad. cast. de Pere Fabra y Luís Díez, Madrid, Editorial Trotta, 2002.

Hare, R. M., 1973: «Rawls' Theory of Justice -I», The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 91 (Apr.), pp. 144-155. https://doi.org/10.2307/2217486

Hansson, S. O. 2007: «The False Dichotomy between Coherentism and Foundationalism», The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 104, No. 6 (June), pp. 290-300. https://doi.org/10.5840/jphil2007104620

Hasan, A. and Fumerton, R., 2018: «Foundationalist Theories of Epistemic Justification», The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2018/entries/justep-foundational/

Huemer, M., 2011: «Does Probability Theory Refute Coherentism?», The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 108, No. 1 (January), pp. 35-54. https://doi.org/10.5840/jphil201110812

Irwin, T., 2009: The Development of Ethics. A Historical and Critical Study. Volume III: From Kant to Rawls, New York, Oxford University Press.

Long, G., 2004: Relativism and the Foundations of Liberalism, Exeter, Imprint Academic.

Mardiros, A. M., 1952: «A Circular Procedure in Ethics», Philosophical Review, Vol. 61, No. 2 (April), pp. 223-225. https://doi.org/10.2307/2182913

Nielsen, K., 1993: «Relativism and Wide Reflective Equilibrium», The Monist, Vol. 76, No. 3 (July 1), pp. 316-332. https://doi.org/10.5840/monist199376320

Olsson, E. J., 2002: «What Is the Problem of Coherence and Truth?», The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 99, No. 5 (May), pp. 246-272. https://doi.org/10.2307/3655648

Olsson, E. J., 2017: «Coherentist Theories of Epistemic Justification», The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/justep-coherence/

Price, R., 1787: A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals, corrected and enlarged 3rd. edition, edited by D. D. Raphael, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1974.

Rawls, J., 1950: A Study in the Grounds of Ethical Knowledge: Considered with Reference to Judgments on the Moral Worth of Character, Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton University.

Rawls, J., 1951: «Outline of a Decision Procedure for Ethics», [publicado originalmente en Philosophical Review, Vol. 60, No. 2 (April), pp. 177-197] citado por Rawls, 1999a, pp. 1-19.

Rawls, J., 1971: A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Rawls, J., 1975: «The Independence of Moral Theory», [publicado originalmente en Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association, Vol. 48, pp. 5-22] citado por Rawls, 1999a, pp. 286-302.

Rawls, J., 1978: «The Basic Structure as Subject», en A. I. Goldman and J. Kim (eds.), Values and Morals. Essays in Honor of William Frankena, Charles Stevenson and Richard Brandt, Dordrecht, Holland, D. Reidel Publishing Company, pp. 47-71.

Rawls, J., 1980: «Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory», [publicado originalmente en The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 77, No. 9 (September), pp. 515-572] citado por Rawls, 1999a, pp. 303-358.

Rawls, J., 1989: Justice as Fairness. A Briefer Restatement, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University. Manuscrito. Disponible en Rawls, 2010: Series III. Writings, 1942-1998 and undated: Subseries G. Justice as Fairness, A Restatement, 1987-1994.

Rawls, J., 1993: Political Liberalism, New York, Columbia University Press.

Rawls, J., 1999a: Collected Papers, edited by Samuel Freeman, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press.

Rawls, J., 1999b: A Theory of Justice, revised edition, Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Rawls, J., 2010: Papers of John Rawls, 1942-2003 and undated. HUM 48, Harvard University Archives.

Raz, J., 1991: «The Claims of Reflective Equilibrium», en Corlett (ed.), pp. 110-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-21763-2_8

Reid, Th. (1788): Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind, en Id., Thomas Reid's Inquiry and Essays, edited by Ronald E. Beanblossom and Keith Lehrer, Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. [reproduced from The works of Thomas Reid, ed. William Hamilton, 6th ed. Edinburgh, Maclachlan and Stewart ... 1863], 1983, pp. 297-368

Ripstein, A., 1987: «Foundationalism in Political Theory», Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Spring), pp. 115-137.

Rorty, R., 1979: Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Rorty, R., 1991: Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth. Philosophical Papers Volume 1, New York, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173643

Ross, C., 2018: «Infinite Regress Arguments», The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2018/entries/infinite-regress/

Scanlon, T. M., 2003: «Rawls on Justification», en S. Freeman (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Rawls, New York, Cambridge University Press, pp. 139-167. https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521651670.004

Singer, M. G., 2002: The Ideal of a Rational Morality. Philosophical Compositions, Oxford, Clarendon Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250210.003.0001

Smith, M. B. E., 1977: «Rawls and Intuitionism», Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume III, pp. 163-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/00455091.1977.10717046

Steup, M. and Neta, R., 2020: «Epistemology», The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2020/entries/epistemology/

Stern, R., 2004: «Coherence as a Test for Truth», Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 69, No. 2 (September), pp. 296-326. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1933-1592.2004.tb00396.x

Thagard, P., 2007: «Coherence, Truth, and the Development of Scientific Knowledge», Philosophy of Science, Vol. 74, No. 1 (January), pp. 28-47. https://doi.org/10.1086/520941

Weber, E. Th. (2010): Rawls, Dewey and Constructivism. On the Epistemology of Justice, London, Continuum Studies in Political Philosophy.

Williams, B. (1985): Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, London, Fontana Press/Collins.

Young, J. O. (2018): «The Coherence Theory of Truth», The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2018/entries/truth-coherence/




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/DOXA2021.44.16





Copyright (c) 2021 Emilio José Rojas Molina

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.